The most dangerous period for an oil refinery is not when it is fully operational, but rather when it is in transition. During a turnaround, thousands of separate procedures are performed, often by contractors who are unfamiliar with the specific site. Some of these procedures involve highly volatile substances or risk-laden working environments such as confined spaces. In order to realize the benefits of an effective turnaround, refiners must fully understand the risk environment, and both plan and allocate resources accordingly.
The DuPont 6-Step Process for Contractor Safety Management