INTERACTIVE: Solamet® Metallization Paste Selector Guide

Our guide makes it easy to select the right solar cell materials

DuPont™ Solamet® photovoltaic (PV) metallization pastes are advanced solar cell materials that deliver significantly higher efficiency and greater power output for solar panels.

When screen printed onto the surface of solar cells, metallization pastes collect the electricity produced by the cells and transport it out.

DuPont has introduced more than 110 new Solamet® PV metallization paste formulations over the last seven years, and continues to develop new Solamet® pastes to boost solar cell efficiencies even more.

We invite you to explore our DuPont™ Solamet® PV Metallization Paste Selector Guide and find the Solamet® pastes that are best suited for your application.

Have you ever wondered how a solar panel is constructed and what makes it work?

A solar panel is a sophisticated “sandwich”, made up of different layers of advanced materials.

We invite you to explore our interactive guide to solar panels. Click on any of the identified layers to learn the basic function of that layer within the solar panel. Also noted are the DuPont advanced materials recommended for each layer.

Front Side Silver
The current industry benchmark
The newest family of high efficiency front side silver pastes
Rear Side Tabbing Silver
A highly conductive solderable silver composition providing lower consumption with excellent adhesion
With unique chemistry delivering higher cell performance and reliability
Photovoltaic metallization pastes are screen printed onto the surface of solar cells in a pattern of grid lines which serve to collect electricity produced by the cell and transport it out. Single print, which refers to the printing of a single layer of silver paste on the front side of a solar cell as a conductor, is the most common screen printing technology.

From Solamet® PV145 paste to the latest generation of Solamet® PV19x paste available today, Solamet® photovoltaic metallization pastes continue to set the standard for solar cell efficiency.
Front Side Silver
The 1st generation silver paste designed for multiple printing as the 2nd layer of grid lines
Designed for multiple printing and to enable narrower and taller grid lines to be precisely printed in two or more layers
Rear Side Tabbing Silver
A highly conductive solderable silver composition providing lower consumption with excellent adhesion
With unique chemistry delivering higher cell performance and reliability
To maximize the efficiency of a solar cell, double (or multiple) printing technology reduces the shadowing effect of wide grid lines and improves electrical conductivity. In addition to demanding precise alignment of the patterning system, multiple printing requires the paste to be finely tuned to perform consistently during all printing passes.
Front Side Silver
A new series of front side silver pastes designed for PERC technology at lower firing temperatures
Rear Side Tabbing Silver
Reduces rear passivation damage while maintaining excellent adhesion to passivation layer
Aluminum
A back surface conductor compatible with the i-PERC process for Local Back Surface Field (LBSF) designs
Passivated Emitter Rear Cell (PERC) is a solar cell structure on p-type crystalline silicon wafers that forms the rear localized aluminum-alloyed contact structures, which reduces the effective rear surface recombination velocity (SRV) by forming localized back surface field (LBSF) regions through patterned dielectrics. PERC structures can enable higher cell efficiencies than cells employing a full area aluminum-alloyed BSF.
Front Side Connecting Silver
A via paste and p-contact metallization for back side tabbing interconnects
The newest series of Metal Wrap Through (MWT) technology for high efficiency rear side interconnects
Aluminum
A highly conductive solderable silver composition providing lower consumption with excellent adhesion
Delivers higher cell performance and reliability
Metal Wrap Through (MWT) is a specialized cell structure that transfers the bus bars on the front side of the solar cell onto the backside, reducing shading on the front side of the cell. The connections are made through holes in the silicon with the same composition as the bus bars.
Silver/Aluminum Pastes
First generation of silver/aluminum paste for n-type cells
Advanced silver/aluminum paste to provide 30-40% better contact resistivity on b-doped emitters
New generation silver/aluminum high-efficiency paste for n-type cells
Designed for multiple printing and to enable narrower and taller grid lines to be precisely printed in two or more layers
N-type solar cells are based on n-type silicon wafers which are produced differently in the doping process during crystallization: while for p-type silicon usually employs boron as a dopant, n-type silicon crystals, usually phosphorus is added to the silicon melt.

N-type solar cells feature two important advantages: they do not suffer from light induced degradation (LID) and they are less sensitive to impurities that are usually present in silicon feedstock.
Contacting Silver Pastes & Inks
Designed for both p-type and n-type with a single screen printing process
Can be customized upon request
Interdigitated back contact solar (IBC) cells are made by screen printing dopant materials onto the back surface of a semiconductor substrate in a pair of interdigitated patterns. Rear contact solar cells eliminate shading losses altogether by putting both contacts on the rear of the cell.

Cells with both contacts on the rear are easier to interconnect and can be placed closer together in the module since there is no need for a space between the cells.

 

How Does Solar Energy Work?

         ●  Solar cells are made of semiconductors such as silicon, a special material that can absorb light as energy. 
         ●  When absorbing light, the energy knocks electrons loose. 
         ●  These electrons are collected and flow along conductors in the PV cell. 
         ●  This flow of electrons, called a current, can be used as an immediate power source or stored in batteries for later use. 
         ●  The current combined with the cell’s voltage determines the amount of power the PV cell can produce.